The first Russian-born innovator was Lev Ivanov. He graduated from the Imperial School in 1852, was appointed regisseur in 1882 and second ballet master in 1885. He worked under Perrot for most of his career. As deputy to Petipa, he created many ballets at the Maryinsky Theatre, but rarely received credit for them because Petipa's name, as choreographed Casse Noisette (The Nutcracker in 1892 and Acts II and IV of Swan Lake, 1895, two masterpieces which testify to his genius. The version of Coppélia danced in England was a combined effort of Ivanov and Cecchetti.
(first published October 1988)
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